Geschichte. Pétain issued a communiqué on the evening of 23 October, announcing that the Sixth Army had taken more than 7,500 prisoners and an enormous quantity of equipment, including 25 heavy and field guns. Ursprünglich wurde es Fort de la Malmaison genannt. The German 7th Army had five divisions in the first position, three Eingreif divisions and three divisions in close reserve, supported by 180 batteries of artillery, 63 of which were heavy. The Chiefs of Staff of the defeated groups were sacked and it was agreed with Army Group German Crown Prince, that the Bunzelwitz Bewegung (Bunzelwitz Manoeuvre) should begin on 26 October. Die Geschütze waren auf den Geschützplacements aufgestellt, die durch Hohltraversen getrennt waren. Tourelle Mougin | Fort de la Malmaison (02) - mercredi 18 octobre 2017 Un camp de reconstitution, avec un char Saint-Chamond, des démonstrations de tir au canon, la visite guidée gratuite du fort, une marche en tenue d'époque et une cérémonie d'hommage, les 21 et 22 octobre 2017, rendez-vous aux abords du fort de La Malmaison, à Chavignon (02000) pour le centenaire de la bataille de La Malmaison ! Home; Read from the beginning ; About the project; The Diary On Tour; Report an issue; Diary of the Great War. [34], The German artillery reply began with a substantial counter-bombardment but this rapidly diminished, especially south of the Ailette, where the supply of ammunition and equipment was blocked by the thick gas cloud in the valley. 17h : démonstration de tirs au canon et du char Saint-Chamond. Ursprünglich wurde es Fort de la Malmaison genannt. Another 36 artillery batteries were brought into the area, which increased the number of guns to c. 580, of which 225 were heavy and super-heavy but this did little to compensate for the vast French numerical superiority in guns. Es war in rechteckiger Form angelegt, der Graben wurde durch zwei zum Grundriss diagonal angelegte Doppelkaponnieren (Nordostecke und Südwestecke) gesichert. Das Fort war daher für eine Besatzung von 804 Mann ausgelegt und hatte im Jahre 1886 eine Bewaffnung von fünf 15,5cm Kanonen, siebzehn 12cm Kanonen, sechs 15cm Mörser und acht Geschütze in den Grabenstreichen. José Pariente Verdejo 2019. Bois des Hoinets and Chavignon were close to the road from Pinon, which from Chavignon ran up along the eastern slopes of the Malmaison spur to Pargny-Filain. Leveau | Battalions from specialist German counter-attack divisions (Eingreifdivisionen) had been distributed along the front line and were caught in the French bombardments, German infantry shelters having been identified by French air reconnaissance and systematically destroyed. The main bombardment by c. 1,790 guns began, with an average of 180 guns for each 1 km (0.62 mi) of front, three times the amount of German artillery. On the extreme right flank near La Royère Farm, the 67th Division made little headway but the 66th Division pushed on to the Panthéon, Orage and Bovettes quarries. [8], In the Second Battle of the Aisne (16 April – 9 May), the French failed to achieve their strategic objective of a breakthrough and a return to a war of movement but captured tactically important ground and inflicted many casualties on the German defenders. At Filain, part of the élite Konigin Elizabeth Guard Regiment surrendered, having had no food for three days. The Allemant plateau was cut from south to north by the narrow St. Guillain ravine and other ravines lay below the crest of the Chemin-des-Dames ridge. Génicourt | Tavannes | [7] By 16 May, the British had captured 254 German guns but had not broken through. In fifteen minutes, the French attack recaptured the ground, except on the right flank, where the crew of a machine-gun post resisted until the morning. [43], The 66th Division captured 2,500 prisoners, 15 guns, several trench mortars and a number of machine-guns. On their left, the 149th and 150th Infantry Regiments captured a German battalion at the Corbeau cavern and pushed the German defenders out of Bois des Hoinets. Until the beginning of the battle, the artillery of both sides fired constantly, with much trench-mortar fire by the French, which a German report of 20 October, reported had transformed the foremost fighting zone between Vauxaillon and Braye into a crater field. At 1:00 p.m., reconnaissance flights revealed that the French had dug in at some points. The Battle of La Malmaison (Bataille de la Malmaison) from 23 to 27 October, was the final French action of the 1917 campaign in the First World War, which had begun with the Nivelle Offensive. Tournoux | Pivoting on Allemant, the 27th Division on the right, was to attack the Riegelstellung known there as Giraffe and Lizard trenches. Public. [57] In four days, the French had advanced 9.7 km (6 mi) and forced the Germans from the plateau of the Chemin des Dames to the north bank of the Ailette valley. An dem Bauwerk wurden keine Modernisierungsmaßnahmen durchgeführt, es wurde am 1. The corps was then to keep on the right of the ravines, between which lies the Mont des Singes spur and capture the strong point of the Guerbette valley, below the tip of the spur and the Château de la Motte. Casemate Pamart | The garrisons changed position but rarely found a spot not under bombardment. Vier Jahre nach der Fertigstellung wurde das Fort von den Pionieren zu Erprobungszwecken genutzt. Few of the mortars had been damaged and were used to engage the French infantry, who were repulsed along most of the position, except on the west flank, which was withdrawn to conform with the retreat of the neighbouring divisions. [30], The flanking divisions of XXI Corps were then to descend on the final objectives, Vaudesson village, Bois de la Belle Croix, Montparnasse Quarry, the west end of Chavignon village and the Bois des Hoinets, a northern continuation of Bois de la Belle Croix. Hirson | A quick withdrawal of the artillery would be impossible if the French infantry crowned the crest and gained observation over the canal crossings, which were within range of French artillery. Rate this attraction Submit. If the attack failed, XIV Corps on the Allemant plateau would be caught in a salient, as would XI Corps on the right at Fort de la Malmaison. Camp des romains | On the eastern flank of the attack front, the bombardment of the 5th Guard Division was less damaging but a local attack, Operation Autumn Harvest was cancelled. Gondreville | Erbaut wurde es als Folge des verlorenen Krieges gegen Deutschland und der damit verbundenen Grenzverschiebungen nach Westen. "Historiques des Regiments 14/18 et ses 5000 Photos: Les Offensives d'avril 1917", "The Battle of Malmaison, 23–26 October 1917: A Masterpiece of Tactics",, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 September 2020, at 15:17. Before the Nivelle Offensive in April, d'Esperey had studied the tactical problems connected with the natural barrier between the Aisne and the plain at Laon and advised Maistre about the topography of the region. Basses Perches | [9] The Germans were forced to retire from the area between Braye-en-Laonnois, Condé-sur-Aisne and Laffaux to the Hindenburg Line from Laffaux Mill, along the Chemin-des-Dames to Courtecon. The German 7th Army conducted the Bunzelwitz Bewegung (Bunzelwitz Manoeuvre), a retirement from the Chemin-des-Dames to the north bank of the Ailette on the night of 1/2 November. [51], Defence in depth was not possible in the area of Group Vailly, which held positions on the edge of the hog's back ridge of the Chemin-des-Dames, south of the Ailette. [48], The intensity of French artillery-fire and the gas cloud blocking the Ailette, left the German commanders ignorant of the situation on the south bank, except for a few messages delivered by runners, whose reports implied that the situation was hopeless. Pompelle | [25], Caves and tunnels had been used by the Germans as shelters for reserves, to reinforce the trench garrisons in the network of trenches running from the Ailette valley, over the Soissons–Laon railway, up the western slopes of the Mont des Singes, east of Vauxaillon and along the summit of the plateau above Laffaux, to the Laffaux Mill on the Laon–Soissons road. Bruissin | La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 9 octobre 2017 à 15:20. Hi! Cormeilles-en-Parisis | Tourelle Galopin 155 mm 1890 | [e] Sporadic felling of fruit trees and demolitions either side of the Ailette, which had been seen by French airmen before the battle, became frequent and a pall of black smoke from fires, drifted over the plain. Lucey | Home; Places; Europe; France; Provence-Alpes-Côte D'Azur; Cannes; Things To Do In Cannes; La Malmaison; La Malmaison 4 1 Vote Currently Open [Closes at 06:00 pm] Address: 47 Boulevard de la Croisette, 06400 Cannes, France; Timings: 10:00 am - 01:00 pm Details Tags: Art Gallery, Museums; Contribute; La Malmaison Map. [50], On the extreme flanks of the attack front, the French limited their operations to artillery-fire and probing attacks and in the late afternoon, French artillery-fire diminished. Abri de combat | A rapid exploitation up the valley was impossible, because the ground on the borders of the canal was marshy. The British attack either side of the Scarpe river penetrated 6,000 yd (3.4 mi; 5.5 km), the furthest advance achieved since the beginning of trench warfare. French territorial gains on the Aisne, Nivelle Offensive, April–May 1917, Map of Vauclerc (commune FR insee code 51598), Map of Vauxaillon area (commune FR insee code 02768), Map of Allemant area (commune FR insee code 02010), Map of the Chavignon area (commune FR insee code 02174), Map of Vauclair area (commune FR insee code 02102), Map of the Vaudesson area (commune FR insee code 02766), German retreat from the Chemin des Dames, November 1917. Verdun | The night of 23/24 October was quiet and during the day, only minor skirmishing took place, as the French consolidated. Tourelle Bussière | The French brought more artillery onto the Allemant and Malmaison plateaux, the Pinon and Rosay forests and the vicinity of Pargny-Filain and Filain. jempie. When the Germans stumbled upon the empty fort they integrated it in their defensive line. The Germans attacked in waves, sometimes advancing shoulder-to-shoulder, supported by flame-thrower detachments. To avoid alerting the French, no demolitions of shelters, tunnels and pillboxes were made and a screen of machine-gunners and riflemen was left on the summit of the ridge to fire until just before dawn. XIV Corps had pivoted on its left flank to a line perpendicular with the start line. [27], German engineers had exploited the irregular ground, which was easy to defend with machine-guns. [46] On 26 October, XI Corps reduced the remaining strong points in Filain and reached the Bassin d'alimentation. [2] The Nivelle offensive involved c. 1.2 million French and British troops and 7,000 artillery pieces on fronts between Reims and Roye, after preliminary offensives at Arras and St. Quentin. CHAR SAINT CHAMOND, exemplaire présenté CHAR SAINT CHAMOND de première génération avec un canon de 75 mm court et deux tourelles séparées pour le pilote et le chef de CHAR. Engineer stores were rushed forward to repair captured caves, quarry entrances and field fortifications. On the night of 2/3 June, two German divisions made five attacks on the east, west and central parts of the Californie Plateau and the west end of the Vauclerc Plateau. [23], The ground-holding divisions held a frontage of about 4.8 km (3 mi) each and to evade French artillery-fire, had moved the reserve and resting battalions far to the rear; about 18 battalions of the Eingreif divisions positioned near the Ailette, were moved closer to the front to compensate. Armee), wurde dann aber endgültig am 28. [45], On 25 October, Pinon was captured with 600 prisoners, Pinon and Rosay forests were entered and Rosay Farm was occupied, as XI Corps attacked from the Chemin-des-Dames ridge, to east of the Malmaison plateau and captured the farms of St. Martin and Chapelle Ste. [39], The 38th Division ejected the Germans from Lady Trench, halted on the summit of the plateau, in front of Bois de Garenne, north of Chavignon and east of the Montparnasse Quarry. The 13th and 43rd divisions of XXI Corps and the 38th Division advanced simultaneously down the Malmaison heights, with tank support on the flanks, towards the edge of the plain south of the Ailette. Ridges radiated down to the Aisne valley, over which the German positions had inadequate observation. Es war daher notwendig, Betonverstärkungen aufzutragen. [24], On 15 September, the 7th Army had c. 168 aircraft against 300 French but the Army Group headquarters delayed the dispatch of more air units until mid-October, having expected attacks elsewhere and had also reinforced the Flanders front. Tourelle de 155 C modèle 1908 | By the evening, the German line ran from the plateau east of Vauxaillon, along the Pinonriegel north of Vaudesson and Chavignon, to the high ground of the ridge south-west of Pargny and then connected to the old position. Das Fort de la Malmaison (kurzzeitig auch Fort Dumas genannt) in der Gemeinde Chavignon (Département Aisne) war ein Sperrfort des Système Séré de Rivières, das zwischen 1878 und 1882 erbaut wurde.Es gehörte zum Gürtel um den Festen Platz Laon. On the extreme right flank the French were to stop on the high ground west of Vaudesson. Es wurde unterstützt von den Forts Condé und Montbérault. The French guns enfiladed the Ailette valley to the east of the Bassin d'alimentation reservoir, bombarded the German defences on the north slopes of the Chemin-des-Dames ridge and the last strong points holding out on the summit with high-explosive, gas and shrapnel shell. After the four-day bombardment was extended by two more days because of bad weather, the French XIV, XXI and XI corps of the Sixth Army, attacked on a 12.1 km (7.5 mi) front with six divisions. Avant 6 h 30, le fort de La Malmaison est pris par un bataillon du 4e Zouaves: ce n’est plus depuis longtemps qu’un amas de ruines mais l’effet psychologique de cette action est considérable. [6] The First Army attacked from Ecurie north of the Scarpe to Vimy Ridge, which fell at about 1:00 p.m., in a 4,000 yd (2.3 mi; 3.7 km) advance. XIV Corps had also taken c. 3,000 prisoners, several guns, machine-guns and trench mortars. Les réserves de vivres et de munitions étaient prévues pour soutenir six mois de siège, et les fours de la boulangerie permettaient de cuire 600 rations de pain chaque jour. Long-range guns bombarded villages and châteaux far behind the front line, directed by observers in lines of observation balloons, which were protected by aircraft and many anti-aircraft guns. The German Fort de Malmaison Fortress is a retirement for 11,841 German victims of the Second World War in France. Mont Bart | Ferdinand Grohs wurde am 18.09.1917 in Weibern – Brohl geboren. Mont Chauve | Jahrhundert zum ersten Mal als königliche Villa (eines … [37], XXI Corps attacked the remainder of the southern face of the Laffaux salient, from east of Mennejean Farm to the south of the Bohery Quarry. There are a lot of websites (mainly in French) on Chemin des Dames! The Germans on the Mont des Singes and in Pinon with the Ailette at their backs, were menaced from the south and the west. Bessoncourt | Seclin | The subterranean galleries had been rebuilt and garrisoned by the Germans in September 1914, the outworks and interior being provided with several ferro-concrete machine-gun nests. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 20. Le plus gros canon tirait des obus de 40 kg à une distance de 9 km. [60], The official historians of the Reichsarchiv wrote that the German defence had been outnumbered threefold in artillery, which had prepared the attack with almost unlimited ammunition. From the farm, the front line went north-eastwards to a point 910 m (1,000 yd) south of La Malmaison Farm, due west of the fort and to the right of the Soissons–Laon road. Sie liegt im Norden der Region Île de France auf dem in beiden Weltkriegen stark umkämpften Höhenzug Chemin des Dames im Département Aisne beim ehemaligen Fort de la Malmaison Tourelle Galopin 155 mm 1907 | On 25 May, three German columns attacked a salient north-west of Bray-en-Laonnois and gained a footing in the French first trench, before being forced out by a counter-attack. On the right flank, XI Corps (Général Louis de Maud'huy), had the 38th Division and an attached tank group, the 66th Division and part of the 67th Division (XXXIX Corps) in support. Salbert | 2. Gas from French bombardments on low-lying land near the Oise–Aisne Canal in the Ailette valley, became so dense that it was impossible to carry ammunition and supplies forward or to remove the wounded. The 27th Division had reached Giraffe Trench, the Laffaux–Pinon ravine and was on the heights beyond the ravine west of Vaudesson. [59], The French success at La Malmaison prevented Hindenburg and Ludendorff from further reinforcing the Austro-Hungarians in Italy and assisted the surprise gained by the British at the Battle of Cambrai (20 November – 7 December). [41], At Montparnasse Quarry, which had galleries 0.97 km (0.6 mi) long, the 1st Chasseur Battalion attack continued until the garrison surrendered at 10:30 a.m. and Orme Farm and a quarry to its left, were taken by the 38th Division. The salient protruded north from the Chemin-des-Dames towards the valley of the upper Ailette, which made the remaining German positions on the crest and the northern slopes of the ridge further east untenable. The German artillery was outnumbered three-to-one and on the front of the 14th Division, 32 German batteries were confronted by 125 French, which silenced most of the German guns before the attack. Should they and Chavignon be lost, it was unlikely that the Germans could remain on the southern slopes of the Chemin-des-Dames east of the Chevrégny Spur. Tags. Château de Malmaison) in Rueil-Malmaison westlich von Paris war Wohnsitz von Kaiser Napoleon und seiner Frau Joséphine. The deep, steep Laffaux–Pinon ravine between Mont des Singes and the Allermant plateau, increased the difficulties of the German defenders in the salient. Casemate Mougin | On the right flank, from Laffaux Mill to Mennejean Farm, the 27th Division and XXI Corps to the east of the farm, attacked the southern face of the salient. Dort ruhen 11.841 deutsche Gefallene aus dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. Bouviers | Of the German divisions engaged on the ridge, none spent more than twelve days in the line and only the 46th Reserve Division returned for another period in the line; the French took 8,552 prisoners.